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11/8/2015 12:00:00 AM

IEEE

IEEE is the world's largest technical professional society, serving members in computing, electrical engineering and electronics. Comprised of 37 societies and councils, IEEE publishes technical journals, magazines, proceedings, and more than 800 standards.

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Zinc-Coated Ferrous Pole-Top Insulator Pins with Lead Threads for Overhead Line Construction

this standard covers ferrous pole-top insulator pins with 1-inch- and 1-3/8-inch-diameter lead threads used in overhead line construction.

10000 ریال

Zinc-Coated Ferrous Ground Rods for Overhead or Underground Line Construction

this standard covers zinc-coated ferrous ground rods used in overhead or underground line construction, or both.

10000 ریال

Zinc-Coated Ferrous Single and Double Upset Spool Insulator Bolts for Overhead Line Construction

this standard covers both single and double upset spool insulator bolts used in overhead line construction.

10000 ریال

Zinc-Coated Ferrous Cable Racks and Cable Rack Hooks for Underground Line Construction

this standard covers several types and sizes of cable racks and cable rack hooks that are used to support current carrying cables in underground manholes, vaults, and tunnels.

10000 ریال

Guide for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on Symmetrical Current Basis Designated “Definite Purpose for Fast Transient Recovery Voltage Rise Times”

forewordfollowing reports of circuit breaker failures in applications where very fast trvs were determined to be the cause, and after thorough analysis of trv data gathered from all parts of the world, this guide was suggested by the ieee switchgear committee’s task force on transient recovery voltages. the task force suggested that another class of definite purpose circuit breakers was needed for fast trv applications. circuit breakers designated as definite purpose for fast transient recovery voltage rise times applications would be subjected to special fast trv parameters during both test duty 2 (30% of rated short-circuit current) and test duty 1 (7% of rated short-circuit current) trials, to demonstrate the capability to interrupt circuits characterized by fast inherent trvs. a few words of clarification are in order: • no fast t2 values or tests are proposed for fault currents greater than 30% of rated short-circuit current. • the proposed fast t2 values were chosen to meet 90% of the known fast trv circuits, but even these fast values do not meet the requirements of all fast trv applications. • a circuit breaker that would meet the requirements for definite purpose for fast trv rise times applications may or may not also meet the requirements for definite purpose circuit breakers for capacitor switching. it is the purpose of this guide to communicate the suggested values to those in the industry who are interested and who would be in a position to offer comments and suggestions for further revisions. table 1b contains values for circuit breakers designed and tested to the circuit breaker ratings contained in ansi c37.06-2000, table 1. these circuit breaker ratings have a rated voltage range factor (k) equal to 1.0. tables 2b and 3b contain values for circuit breaker ratings contained in ansi c37.06-2000, tables 2 and 3. this guide was initially approved as a “trial-use” guide in 1997. experience with the trial-use document since then has been favorable, and the document is now approved for more general use as a guide. only minor editorial revisions have been made to the guide, plus suitable revisions to the text of this “foreword.”  scopethis guide is issued as a supplement to c37.06 for high-voltage circuit breaker applications where the transient recovery voltages (trv) rise to the crest value much more rapidly than those specified in ansi c37.06: table 1, preferred ratings for indoor circuit breakers with voltage range factor k=1.0; table 2, preferred ratings for outdoor circuit breakers 72.5 kv and below; or table 3, preferred ratings for outdoor circuit breakers rated 123 kv and above. 2

10000 ریال

Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities for Indoor AC Medium-Voltage Switches Used in Metal-Enclosed Switchgear

foreword (this foreword is not part of ansi c37.22-1997, preferred ratings and related required capabilities for indoor ac medium-voltage switches used in metal-enclosed switchgear.)this new standard reflects the ongoing, definitive changes being made in standards for technical improvement as well as to reflect industry practice. periodic review of this standard takes place through the normal ansi procedural requirement that standards be reaffirmed, revised or withdrawn within five years of the original publication date.suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. they should be sent to:vice president, engineering departmentnational electrical manufacturers association1300 north 17th streetrosslyn, virginia 22209 this standard was processed and approved for submittal to ansi by accredited standard committee of power switchgear, c37. committee approval of the standard does not necessarily imply that all committee members voted for its approval. the basic data included in this new document is a result of new standards being developed that need the preferred ratings contained herein.scopethis standard provides preferred ratings for indoor ac medium-voltage switches used in metal-enclosed switchgear.

10000 ریال

High-Voltage Switches, Bus Supports and Accessories Schedule of Preferred Ratings, Construction Guidelines and Specifications

the purpose of this revision is to bring the standard up-to-date and in line with present-day requirements. the standard is coordinated with the other american national standards in the field of high-voltage switches:ansi/ieee c37.30, standard requirements for high-voltage air switchesieee c37.34, test code for high-voltage air switchesansi/ieee c37.35, guide for the application, installation, operation, and maintenance of high-voltage air disconnecting and load interrupter switchesansi/ieee c37.36b, guide to current interruption with horn gap air switchesansi/ieee c37.37, loading guide for ac high-voltage air switchesieee 1247, standard for interrupter switches for alternating current, rated above 1000 voltsthis revision modifies the document title to allow for future inclusion of other types of high-voltage switches and to harmonize with the direction of the c37.30 series of standards.this revision includes the changing of the station, distribution and indoor voltage ratings of 8.25 kv, 15.0 kv and 25.8 kv to 8.3 kv, 15.5 kv and 27 kv respectively to harmonize voltage ratings between equipment classes.station class voltage ratings of 121 kv, 169 kv and 242 kv have been changed to 123 kv, 170 kv and 245 kv respectively to harmonize with ac high voltage circuit breakers c37.06-2000 and iec.metrification of the document has continued by placing the metric equivalents first in the text and tables while retaining the inch - pound system in parentheses.circuit switchers are excluded from this standard.the annexes are for information only and are not considered a part of the standard.suggestions for the improvement of this standard will be welcome. they should be sent to the national electrical manufacturers association, 1300 north 17th street, suite 1847, rosslyn, va 22209.this standard provides the schedules of preferred ratings and construction specifications for high-voltage disconnect, interrupter, fault initiating, and grounding switches rated above 1000 volts. switch operator control voltage ranges (formerly c37.33), bus supports and accessories are also covered by this standard. switches included in c37.20.2, c37.20.3, c37.20.4, c37.71, c37.72 and c37.73 are not covered by this standard.

10000 ریال

Specifications for High-Voltage (Greater Than 1000 V) Expulsion-Type Distribution-Class Fuses, Fuse and Disconnecting Cutouts, Fuse Disconnecting Switches, and Fuse Links, and Accessories Used with These Devices

this standard establishes specifications for high-voltage (above 1000 v) expulsion-type distribution-class fuses, fuse cutouts, fuse disconnecting switches, their associated fuse links and disconnecting cutouts, and accessories for these devices. all of these devices are intended for use on alternating current distribution systems. these specifications apply to the following specific types of equipment: a) open and enclosed types of fuses and fuse cutouts b) open and enclosed fuse disconnecting switches c) fuse links of the type used exclusively with distribution-class fuses, fuse cutouts, and fuse disconnecting switches d) open-link types of fuses, cutouts, and their associated fuse links e) open and enclosed types of disconnecting cutouts f) fuse supports, fuse mountings and fuse hooks of the type used exclusively with distribution-class fuses, fuse cutouts, fuse disconnecting switches, and disconnecting cutouts g) fuseholders and removable switch blades of the type used exclusively with distribution-class fuse supports h) mounting brackets used for distribution-class equipment and other accessories purpose standard specifications for the devices covered by this document are necessary to ensure consistent development and application of these devices by manufacturers and users of these devices.

20000 ریال

Standard Specifications for High- Voltage Distribution Class Enclosed Single-Pole Air Switches with Rated Voltages from 1 kV through 8.3 kV

this standard establishes specifications for high-voltage (above 1000 v) distribution class enclosed singlepole air switches and associated accessories with rated voltages from 1 kv through 8.3 kv. all of these devices are intended for use on alternating current distribution systems. these specifications apply to the following specific types of equipment:  a) distribution class enclosed single-pole air switches b) supports, mountings, fuse hooks, and tongs, all of the type used exclusively with distribution class enclosed single-pole air switches c)distribution class enclosed single-pole air switches used in enclosure packages

20000 ریال

Specifications for High-Voltage (>1000 V) Expulsion and Current-Limiting Power Class Fuses and Fuse Disconnecting Switches

this standard establishes specifications for high-voltage (above 1000 v) expulsion and current-limiting type power class fuses, and accessories. all of these devices are intended for use on alternating current systems. these specifications apply to the following specific types of equipment: a) power class expulsion-type fuses b) power class current-limiting type fuses c) power class fuse disconnecting switches d) item a) through item c) used in fuse-enclosure packages (feps) e) fuse supports, fuse holders, fuse hooks, fuse units, and refill units, of the type intended for use with power class fuses and fuse disconnecting switches f) disconnecting devices created by the use of a removable switch blade in a power class fuse support g) fuse links when used exclusively with power class fuses and fuse disconnecting switches purpose standard specifications for the devices covered by this document are necessary to assure consistent development and application of these devices by manufacturers and users of these devices.

20000 ریال

Standard Requirements for Capacitor Switches for AC Systems (1 kV to 38 kV) IEEE 3 Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5997, USA 22 March 2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society Sponsored by the Switchgear Committee

this standard applies to single- or multi-pole ac switches for rated maximum voltage above 1 kv to 38 kv for use in switching shunt capacitor banks (see the note in this clause). this standard covers the application of capacitive load switching wherein the capacitive loads are separated by sufficient inductance to limit the high-frequency transient-making peak current to the peak values shown in table 2 and table 3. switches designed and built in accordance with this standard are not intended for use as fault current or noncapacitive load current interrupting devices. note—this standard is intended to be a comprehensive standard for all “specific duty” applications of switches in the area of switching shunt capacitor banks, but it is limited in scope up to and including 38 kv. however, subject to agreement between the user and manufacturer, it may be used as a specification guide for other rated voltages.11notes in text, tables, and figures of a standard are given for information only, and do not contain requirements needed to implement the standard.

20000 ریال

Overhead-Type Distribution Transformers 500 kVA and Smaller: High Voltage, 34 500 V and Below; Low Voltage, 7970/13 800Y V and Below

this standard covers certain electrical, dimensional, and mechanical characteristics and safety features of single- and three-phase, 60-hz, mineral-oil-immersed, self-cooled, overhead-type distribution transformers 500 kva and smaller, high voltages 34 500 v and below and low voltages 7970/13 800y v and below. purpose this standard is intended for use as a basis for determining the performance, interchangeability, and safety of overhead-type distribution transformers and to assist in the proper selection of this equipment.

40000 ریال

Requirements for Pad-Mounted, Compartmental-Type Self-Cooled, Single-Phase Distribution Transformers With High Voltage Bushings; High-Voltage, 34500 GRYD/19920 Volts and Below; Low-Voltage, 240/120 Volts; 167 kVA and Smaller

forewardthe accredited standards committee on transformers, regulators, and reactors, c57, has for a number of years been developing and correlating standards on transformers and regulators. the data used in this work have been gathered from many sources, including the standards of the institute of electrical and electronics engineers and the national electrical manufacturers association, reports of committees of the edison electric institute, and others. this standard was prepared by the working group of the subcommittee on distribution transformers, overhead and pad-mounted, c57.12.2, and is a revision of the 1986 edition. added to this revision are sections on storage and installation with emphasis being placed on the actual position when stored and the consideration of the angle of tilt when installed.scopethis standard is intended for use as a basis for determining performance, interchangeability, and safety of the equipment covered, and to assist in the proper selection of such equipment. this standard covers certain electrical, dimensional, and mechanical characteristics and takes into consideration certain safety features of single-phase, 60 hz, mineral-oil-immersed, self-cooled, padmounted, compartmental-type distribution transformers with high-voltage bushings. these transformers are rated 167 kva and smaller, with high-voltages of 34500 grd/19900 volts and below for operation between one phase and grounded neutral, and low-voltage of 240/120 volts. these transformers are generally used for step-down purposes from an underground primary cable supply. note—refer to latest federal regulations concerning polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) contaminations in transformers. this standard covers bushing and terminal arrangements for both radial and loop feed systems. this standard does not cover the electrical and mechanical requirements of any accessory devices that may be supplied with the transformer.

10000 ریال

Submersible, Three-Phase Transformers, 3750 kVA and Smaller: High Voltage, 34 500 GrdY/19 920 Volts and Below; Low Voltage, 600 Volts and Below

this standard is intended to set forth characteristics relating to performance, limited electrical and mechanical interchangeability, and safety of the equipment described, and to assist in the proper selection of such equipment. this standard describes certain electrical and mechanical characteristics and takes into consideration certain safety features of three phase, 60-hz, liquid-immersed, self-cooled, undergroundtype distribution transformers rated 2500 kva and smaller with high voltages of 34 500grdy/19 920 volts and below and with low voltages of 480 volts and below. these transformers are generally used for stepdown purposes from an underground primary cable supply and are suitable for occasional submerged operation.

20000 ریال

Transformers Pad-Mounted, Compartmental-Type, Self-Cooled, Single-Phase Distribution Transformers with Separable Insulated High-Voltage Connectors; High Voltage, 34 500 GrdY/19 920 Volts and Below; Low Voltage, 240/120 Volts; 167 kVA and Smaller Requirements

forewardaccredited standards committee on transformers, regulators, and reactors, c57, has for many years been developing and correlating standards on transformers and regulators. the data used in this work have been gathered from many sources, including the standards of the institute of electrical and electronics engineers and the national electrical manufacturers association, reports of committees of the edison electric institute, and others. this standard was prepared by the subcommittee on distribution transformers, overhead and pad-mounted, c57.12.2. suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. they should be sent to the national electrical manufacturers association, 2101 l street, nw, washington, dc 20037.scopethis standard is intended for use as a basis for determining performance, interchangeability, and safety of the equipment covered, and to assist in the proper selection of such equipment. this standard covers certain electrical, dimensional, and mechanical characteristics, and takes into consideration certain safety features of single-phase, 60-hz, mineral-oil-immersed, self-cooled, pad-mounted, compartmental-type distribution transformers with separable insulated high-voltage connectors. these transformers are rated 167 kva and smaller, with high voltages of 34500 grdy/19 920 volts and below for operation between one phase and grounded neutral, and low voltages of 240/120 volts. these transformers are generally used for step-down purposes from an underground primary cable supply. note - refer to latest federal regulations concerning pcb contamination in transformers. this standard covers two connector and terminal arrangements for loop feed systems. either type 1 (see figure 1) or type 2 (see figure 2) arrangements shall be specified. this standard does not cover the electrical and mechanical requirements of any accessory devices that may be supplied with the transformer.

10000 ریال

Network, Three-Phase Transformers, 2500 kVA and Smaller; High Voltage, 34 500 GrdY/ 19 920 and Below; Low Voltage, 600 V and Below; Subway and Vault Types (Liquid Immersed)

this standard covers certain electrical, dimensional, and mechanical characteristics and takes into consideration certain safety features of three-phase, 60-hz, liquid-immersed, self-cooled, network transformers with a primary grounding switch. these transformers are rated 2500 kva and below with high voltages of 34 500grdy/19 920 volts and below. these transformers are generally used for step-down purposes from underground primary cables and supply a secondary network system through network protectors. these transformers are typically installed below ground level. purpose this standard is intended for use as a basis for establishing the performance, electrical and mechanical interchangeability, safety of the equipment covered, and to assist in the proper selection of such equipment.

40000 ریال

Requirements for Ventilated Dry-Type Distribution Transformers, 1 to 500 kVA, Single-Phase, and 15 to 500 kVA, Three-Phase, with High-Voltage 601 to 34 500 Volts, Low-Voltage 120 to 600 Volts

foreword(this foreword is not a part of american national standard requirements for ventilated dry-type distribution transformers, 1 to 500 kva, single-phase, and 15 to 500 kva, three-phase, with high-voltage 601 to 34 500 volts, low-voltage 120 to 600 volts, ansi c57.12.50-1981.) this new dry-type transformer standard describes ventilated dry-type transformers with self-cooled kva ratings 1- 500, and high voltages 2400-34 500 volts. (forced-air-cooled ratings for certain sizes are listed in part il.) it is also applicable from 601-2400 volts, but not for high voltages 600 volts and below, since american national standards committee c89 on specialty transformers has responsibility for transformers with high voltages 600 volts and below. this standard is part of a new series of standards for dry-type transformers that also includes american national standard general requirements for dry-type distribution and power transformers, ansi/ieee c57.12.01-1979; american national standard test code for dry-type distribution and power transformers, ansi/ieee c57.12.91- 1979; american national standard requirements for ventilated dry-type power transformers, 501 kva and larger, three-phase, with highvoltage 601-34 500 volts, low-voltage 208y/120 to 4160 volts, ansi c57.12.51-1981; and american national standard requirements for sealed dry-type power transformers, 501 kva and larger, three- phase, with high-voltage 601-34 500 volts, low-voltage 208y/120 to 4160 volts, ansi c57.12.52-1981. dry-type transformers have been covered in the past by a variety of documents, including american national standard general requirements for distribution, power, and regulating transformers, ansi c57.12.00- 1973; american national standard test code for distribution, power, and regulating transformers, ansi c57.12.90- 1973; american national standard dry-type transformers for general applications, ansi/nema st 20-1 972; and commercial, institutional, and industrial dry-type transformers, nema tr 27-1965 (r1976). the new standards are the result of an effort encompassing the interests of users, manufacturers, and others dedicated to developing voluntary consensus standards primarily for dry-type transformers. they have various significant changes, including higher bils (for most voltages), more stringent and meaningful short-circuit requirements, improved descriptions of “usual” and “unusual” service conditions, and numerous other improvements. the new standards should be easier and more efficient to use, since they are arranged according to the sequence in which information is normally needed. ansi c57.12.50-1981 includes customary units and metric (si) units, in accordance with ansi policy. sound levels were discussed in the preparation of this standard, but are not included at present. as a matter of information, nema tr 1-1974, transformers, regulators, and reactors, includes data concerning dry-type transformer sound levels. it should be noted that ansi c57.12.50-1981 covers some of the scope of ansi (39.2-1972 (nema st 20-1972). it is understood from the chairman of american national standards committee on specialty transformers, c89, that the committee will delete that portion of the scope of c89.2 relating to transformers 601 volts and above to eliminate duplication. this standard is a voluntary consensus standard. its use is mandatory only when required by a duly constituted legal authority or when specified in a contractual relationship. to meet specialized needs and to allow innovation, specific changes are permissible when mutually determined by the user and the producer, provided such changes do not violate existing laws and are considered technically adequate for the function intended. when this document is used on a mandatory basis, the word “shall” indicates mandatory requirements, and words “should” and “may” refer to matters which are recommended and permitted, respectively, but not mandatory. the applicable ansi rules and procedures for the preparation and approval of voluntary consensus standards have been followed. these specify procedures for voting, review and attempted reconciliation of dissenting viewpoints, a 60-day public review period, and final review and approval by the ansi board of standards review. suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. they should be sent to the american national standards institute, inc, 1430 broadway, new york, n.y. 10018.this standard is intended to set forth characteristics relating to performance, limited electrical and mechanical interchangeability, and safety of the equipment described, and to assist in the proper selection of such equipment.this standard describes certain electrical and mechanical characteristics and takes into consideration certain safety features of 60-hz, two-winding, ventilated dry-type transformers with self-cooled ratings 1 to 500 kva, single-phase, and 15 to 500 kva, three-phase, inclusive; high-voltage 601 to 34 500 volts, and low-voltage 120 to 600 volts, inclusive; generally used for step-down purposes. (forced-air-cooled ratings for certain sizes are listed in part 11.)this standard does not apply to other types of transformers, such as specialty, ventilated dry-type 501 kva and larger, sealed dry-type, pad-mounted dry-type, liquid immersed, instrument, regulating, furnace, mine, and rectifier transformers. transformers with high voltage 600 volts or less are excluded.when this standard is used on a mandatory basis, the word “shall” indicates mandatory requirements, and the words “should” and “may” refer to matters that are recommended and permitted, respectively, but not mandatory.part i of this standard describes basic electrical and mechanical requirements. part ii describes other requirements or alternatives which may be specified for some applications.

10000 ریال

Transformers Used in Unit Installations, Including Unit SubstationsConformance Standard

foreword(this foreword is not part of amencan national standard c57.12.55-1987.)the high voltage apparatus coordinating committee (hvacc) was established july 24, 1972 by the electrical and electronic technical advisory board (now superseded by the electrical and electronic standards management board) of the american national standards institute. the responsibility assigned to hvacc was to review and evaluate existing american national standards and other related standards for the purpose of developing a “draft standard” for unit substations and to develop recommendations for (1) correlating requirements of these standards and (2) adding requirements to these standards appropriate for product evaluation.this standard results from the evaluation of existing american national standards and the need to add requirements to these standards for the evaluation and conformance certification of dry-type transformers. this document refers to the proposed revision of american national standard for dry-type transformers, ansi/ieee c57.12.01-1979 (now in preparation).this document includes appendixes a and b, outlining procedures recommended for qualifying insulation systems; related material is covered in american national standard test for thermal evaluation of insulation systems for ventilated dry-type power and distribution transformers, ansi/ieee c57.12.56-1984.this standard is not intended to cover application, installation, or operation of dry-type transformers.transformers certified under this standard may contain accessories necessary for installation. for the conformance requirements for such accessories, reference should be made to the american national standard for each specific accessory involved. typical accessories of a pad-mounted installation are fuses, lightning arresters, circuit breakers, motor starter controls, and the like. suggestions for improvement of this standard will be welcome. they should be sent to the national electrical manufacturers association, 2101 l street, nw, suite 300, washington, dc 20037.this standard describes certain electrical, mechanical, and safety requirements and conformance tests for dry-type distribution and power transformers and for autotransformers. these transformers may be either single-phase or polyphase, with ventilated, nonventilated, or scaled enclosures.such transformers may be remotely or integrally associated with primary or secondary switchgear or substations, or both. the range of transformers is 601 volts through 34 500 volts (either primary or secondary) in sizes of 1 kva through 2 500 kva. such transformers are intended to be installed in accordance with the americannational standard national electrical code (ansi/nfpa 70-1987). all manufacturers seeking certification under this standard should demonstrate that performance requirements have been met by perfoming the tests herein, by submitting data from earlier tests, by exhibiting proof of satisfactory field service, or by an appropriate combination of these methods. families of insulation systems may be certified on the basis of tests performed on one representative model.

10000 ریال

Standard Test Procedure for Thermal Evaluation of Insulation Systems for Ventilated Dry-Type Power and Distribution Transformers

foreword(this foreword is not a part of ansi/ieee c57.12.56-1986, ieee standard test procedure for thermal evaluation of insulation systems for ventilated dry-type power and distribution transformers.)this standard was developed to provide a method for evaluating insulation systems for ventilated dry-type transformers with high-voltage ratings greater than 600 v. since the procedures contained herein are new, experience factors may require future revision.the working group that developed this standard used aiee 65-1956, the proposed test for thermal evaluation of ventilated dry-type power and distribution transformers, as a starting point. new materials and coil-design techniques necessitated a revision of the procedure to recognize such factors as layer insulation, higher impulse withstand capabilities, and new organic, high-temperature insulations. this standard describes methods that take the new materials and processes into account.the working group was unable to define an existing insulation system to use as a control for comparison with an insulation system under test; therefore, an arbitrary extrapolation criteria of 40 000 h was selected for the evaluation. the working group urges the dry-type transformer industry to report results of tests using this standard to provide a basis for future improvement.the working group considered aging under voltage stresses which might cause partial discharge but ruled it out since present transformer designs are generally made to be as free of partial discharges as practical.the working group considered a vibration and shock procedure as one of the aging factors. so little information is published regarding the effects of vibration and shock in high-voltage insulation systems that it was impossible to include it in this standard. the working group urges the industry to report procedures and results of testing insulation systems with vibration and shock so that revisions of this standard may incorporate these factors, if they are found to be significant.this standard relates voltage withstand end-point criteria to the impulse voltage distribution within the coil or to the initial-voltage withstand of the coil. a relationship between impulse withstand of the insulation and short-term 60 hz withstand is identified so that 50/60 hz testing of model coils is possible. acknowledgement and thanks are extended to those who have so freely given their time and knowledge and have conducted experimental work on which this standard is based.this standard was developed by a working group of the dry-type transformer subcommittee of the ieee transformer committee of the ieee power engineering society. this standard is intended to establish a uniform method for determining the temperature classification of ventilated dry-type power and distribution transformer insulation systems by test rather than by chemical composition. these insulation systems are intended for use in transformers listed in ansi c57.12.50-1981 [1]1 and ansi c57.12.51-1981 [2], and whose highest voltages exceed nominal 600 v. note — in this standard, the term transformer shall be considered to mean ventilated dry-type transformer unless qualified by other descriptive terms.

10000 ریال

American National Standard of Procedures for Compliance Testing of Unlicensed Wireless Devices

this standard specifies u.s. consensus standard methods and instrumentation and test facilities requirements for measurement of radio frequency (rf) signals and noise emitted from unlicensed wireless devices (also called unlicensed transmitters, intentional radiators, and license-exempt transmitters) operating in the frequency range 9 khz to 231 ghz. it does not include generic or product-specific emission limits. it also does not cover measurement of radio emissions from unintentional radiators, as mentioned in 1.2. where possible, the specifications herein are harmonized with other national and international standards used for similar purposes. uses of the word shall in this standard indicate a mandatory requirement that must be met to satisfy this standard. the word should is used to indicate that a requirement is recommended but not mandatory. tolerances on dimensions and distances are based on good engineering practice where not specified. the word may is used to indicate a recommendation that is at the discretion of the user. in addition, notes in this document are informative and are not part of the requirements. in this standard, the text takes precedence over the figures because the text is complete and the figures are illustrative of a typical application of the text. notes are used in the text for emphasis or to offer informative suggestions about the technical content of the standard, and provide additional information to assist the reader with a particular passage, but they do not include mandatory requirements. footnotes in text are included only for information, clarification, and/or aid applicable to the use of the standard, but mandatory requirements are not included in text footnotes. measurement methods are provided for radiated and conducted emissions that can be generated by a variety of devices, as described in 1.2. definitions are provided for terms and phrases contained in the text, in which the words do not represent obvious or common usage. in most cases, measurement instrumentation and calibration requirements are only generally characterized in deference to standards dedicated to these subjects, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. requirements for operation of test samples during measurements are presented for devices in general, as well as for specific types of devices that are frequently measured. specific requirements for emission test data recording and reporting are presented with reference to general requirements contained in documents dedicated to standard laboratory practices, which should be used in conjunction with this standard. the main text is augmented by a series of annexes that provide details for certain measurement methods and facilities. purpose and applications various unlicensed wireless devices (also known as unlicensed transmitters, intentional radiators, and license-exempt transmitters) are subject to certain regulatory requirements. the primary way to show compliance in meeting regulatory requirements is by testing such devices in a repeatable and reproducible manner. this standard presents the methods of measurement to show compliance with the technical specifications for the majority of current wireless devices in wide use. it represents a consolidation and elucidation of procedures that were heretofore dispersed throughout many documents. it is not expected that all unlicensed wireless devices on the market will in fact be covered by this standard. this standard does not consider test methods for unlicensed wireless devices already covered in other published standards, such as unlicensed personal communication services devices, which are covered in ansi c63.17-2006 [b3].1 procedures for evaluating dynamic frequency selection (dfs) functionality (i.e., required for u-nii devices in the united states) and for television-band unlicensed wireless devices2 are not addressed in this standard. this standard also does not cover measurement of emissions from radio receivers, the receiver portion of a transceiver, and other types of unintentional radiators, which are covered by other standards (e.g., ansi c63.4).3 this standard does not cover other types of unintentional radiators (e.g., industrial, scientific, and medical (ism) equipment). in addition, many types of unlicensed wireless devices are also subject to regulatory requirements concerning human exposure to rf energy; rf exposure conformity assessment methods are not considered in this standard but are the subject of other standards (e.g., ieee std 1528tm-2003 [b37]). this document provides standard test methods for determining compliance with regulatory requirements for many types of unlicensed wireless devices. these unlicensed wireless devices include, but are not limited to, the following: — remote control and security unlicensed wireless devices — frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum devices — digital transmission system devices — antipilferage devices — cordless telephones — radio frequency identification (rfid) tag readers — unlicensed national information infrastructure devices — intrusion detectors — unlicensed wireless devices operating below 30 mhz — wireless (garage) door openers — ultra-wideband (uwb) devices — automatic vehicle identification systems — inductive devices clause 2 and clause 3 contain the normative references and definitions used in this standard, respectively. clause 4 provides the specifications for the necessary test instrumentation needed for performing compliance testing. clause 5 provides the general requirements for all standard test methods. clause 6 provides standard test methods required for most unlicensed wireless devices. clause 7, clause 8 (fm band devices), clause 9 (millimeter-wave devices), clause 10 (ultra-wideband devices), clause 11 (dts devices), clause 12 (u-nii devices), clause 13 (devices using antenna arrays), and clause 14 (devices with multiple outputs) identify additional tests or requirements for specific types of unlicensed wireless devices. clause 15 specifies requirements for reporting test results. annex a is an informative listing of the tests required to determine compliance of a specific unlicensed wireless device and gives examples of regulatory band-edge requirements for various unlicensed wireless devices. because annex a describes regulatory requirements for testing of unlicensed wireless devices, it serves as a key to use of this standard. annex b is an informative example of the information to be included in a test report. annex c is an informative discussion on instrumentation pulse desensitization considerations. annex d provides information about detector types and functions used in emc testing. annex e provides information about measurements above 1 ghz from an instrumentation perspective. annex f is an informative discussion on broadband measurements. annex g provides guidelines for effective radiated power (erp) and equivalent isotropically radiated power (eirp) measurements. annex h discusses the rationale for making radiated emission measurements using two different methods. annex i discusses site considerations for measuring inductive-loop devices below 1 mhz. annex j provides details of an alternative procedure for determining compliance of unlicensed fm transmitters. finally, annex k and annex l provide an informative glossary and a bibliography, respectively. use of the annexes and clauses applicable to an unlicensed wireless device under test allows users of this standard to determine compliance of a device with regulatory requirements. however, any test procedure identified for use by the national regulatory authority that differs from the provisions of this standard shall take precedence. numbered cross-references used throughout this standard refer to either a specific clause or subclause of this standard; for example, 6 refers to clause 6, 6.2 refers to subclause 6.2, and a.2 refers to subclause a.2 of annex a. not all clauses in this standard are applicable to all devices that can be measured with these methods. the nature of this standard is to specify general methods that can be applied to all devices within its scope and to supplement these methods with particular requirements for some types of devices. device-specific requirements take precedence over general requirements. see annex a for guidance in applying this standard to specific types of devices. this document covers measurement methodologies but is not intended to describe regulatory limits. as new measurement methods mature, this standard will be amended or a follow-up standard will be developed to present the new methods. it is also expected that the asc c63® committee that developed this standard will provide a forum for test laboratories, manufacturers, and government agencies to determine the need for additions and amendments of this standard to accommodate new wireless devices in the future. 1 the numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in annex l. 2 television-band unlicensed wireless devices are covered in 47 cfr part 15 subpart h. 3 information on references can be found in clause 2.

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